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THE HISTORY OF
THE EARLY UNITED STATES MINT - 1795


by Ron Guth

January 3, 1795

Warrant No. 1 in favor of Albion Cox to pay laborers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 22nd to the 27th of December last inclusive. $31.88

Warrant No. 2 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in coining at the Mint from the 22nd to the 27th of December last inclusive. $42.30

Warrant No. 3 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 22nd to the 27th of December last inclusive. $36.89

January 10, 1795

Warrant No. 4 in favor of Albion Cox to pay laborers at the furnace of the Mint from the 29th of December 1794 to the 3rd instant inclusive. $29.04

Warrant No. 5 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 29th of December 1794 to the 3rd instant inclusive. $45.32

Warrant No. 6 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers in coining at the Mint from the 29th of December 1794 to the 3rd instant inclusive. $50.22

January 13, 1795

Warrant No. 7 in favor of James Prince for 316 lb. of copper @ 25 cents per lb. including charges. $79.40

January 17, 1795

Warrant No. 8 in favor of Albion Cox to pay laborers at the furnace of the mint from the 5th to the 10th instant inclusive. $41.78

Warrant No. 9 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 5th to the 10th instant inclusive. $48.12

Warrant No. 10 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 5th to the 10th instant inclusive. $44.92

Warrant No. 11 in favor of Thomas Town in full of his account of Millwright and machinery work at the Mint from October 1 to December 31, 1794 and for attendance at the furnaces and forge, with traveling expenses. $432.95

Warrant No. 12 in favor of Robert McGee in full of his account of scantling, boards, scantlings, etc. for the Mint to December 15, 1794. $208.07

Warrant No. 13 in favor of Henry Voigt, for a like sum advanced by him to Peter Kline, the amount of his bill for brick-laying at the Mint. $131.75

January 19, 1795

Warrant No. 14 in favor of Thomas Dobson, his bill of Stationery for the mint to the 17th of June, 1794. $4.83

Warrant No. 15 in favor of Tench Francis, his bill of lead, furnished the Mint 22nd of December, 1794. $430.23

January 20, 1795

Warrant No. 16 in favor of George Turner for blacksmith work and iron. $31.73

January 21, 1795

Warrant No. 17 in favor of Frederick Brown for one months night watch at the Mint. $12.00

Warrant No. 18 in favor of Joseph Wetherill for white oak scantling, haling included for the use of the Mint. $12.53

Warrant No. 19 in favor of Jacob Henniser for Hay delivered at the Mint December 3, 1794. $22.25

Warrant No. 20 in favor of John Smith Gardner for 44 days work at engraving to the 31 December, 1794. $70.40

January 22, 1795

Warrant No. 21 in favor of William Powell his bill for carpenters work done at the Mint to the 19th instant, smith and painters bills included. $243.41

Warrant No. 22 in favor of Henry Luckniss in full of his bill of stationery and printing for the Mint to the 24th November last. $79.80

Warrant No. 23 in favor of George Ludlam for four lead weights, cast to pattern for the coining press. $106.22

Warrant No. 24 in favor of John McElwee for sundry black lead potts for the use of the Mint to the 11th instant.

Warrant No. 25 in favor of Henry Voigt for a like sum advanced by him to Peter Hutts for German steel. $53.50

Warrant No. 26 in favor of Thomas Ryerson for files for the use of the Mint to 15th August 1794. $22.10

Warrant No. 27 in favor of John West for scantling boards for the Mint from 11th March to 24th December 1794. $166.69

Warrant No. 28 in favor of Joseph Cruckshark for stationery for the Mint to the 21st instant. $77.17

January 23, 1795

Warrant No. 29 in favor of Caleb Lownes for Bar Iron, & Moulds, haling included to the 17th December last. $112.94

January 24, 1795

Warrant No. 30 in favor of Albion Cox, to pay laborers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 12th to the 17th instant inclusive. $29.04

Warrant No. 31 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 12th to the 17th instant inclusive. $49.88

Warrant No. 32 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 12th to the17th instant inclusive. $48.02

January 27, 1795

Warrant No. 33 in favor of John Carrell for Ironmongery supplied the Mint to the 30th December 1794. $14.25

Warrant No. 34 in favor of Caleb Emlen in full of his bill of Scantling and other timbers for the Mint, haling included, to the 27th November, 1794. $51.15

January 31, 1795

Warrant No. 35 in favor of Albion Cox to pay laborers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 19th to the 24th instant inclusive. $29.04

Warrant No. 36 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 19th to the 24th inclusive. $48.57

Warrant No. 37 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 19th to the 24th instant inclusive. $51.10

February 2, 1795

Warrant No. 38 in favor of Samuel Howell Junior and Company for sundry castings, wrought iron, etc., haling included to the 5th of January last. $937.19

Warrant No. 39 in favor of Christian Kauck for corn, oats and shorts for the Horses to the 23rd December 1794. $94.53

February 5, 1795

Warrant No. 40 in favor of John Lesher for a load of hay (quantity 24C, 3Q, 14 lbs.) half weighing included, for the horses at the Mint. $25.04

February 7, 1795

Warrant No. 42 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 26th to 31st January last inclusive. $53.02

Warrant No. 41 in favor of Albion Cox to pay laborers employed at the furnace of Mint from the 26th to the 31st of January last inclusive. $29.04

Warrant No. 43 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 26th to the 31st of January last inclusive. $50.50

February 12, 1795

The first deposit of gold bullion for coinage, was made by Moses Brown, merchant of Boston, on February 12, 1795; it was of gold ingots, worth $2,276.72, which was paid for in silver coins.

--Reference 5

February 14, 1795

Warrant No. 44 in favor of Albion Cox to pay laborers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 2nd to the 7th instant inclusive, $39.92

Warrant No. 45 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed at the coining business from the 2nd to the 7th instant inclusive. $30.12

Warrant No. 46 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 2nd to the 7th instant inclusive. $30.80

February 18, 1795

Warrant No. 47 in favor of Amos Subers for black lead potts and muffles. $48.47

February 20, 1795

Warrant No. 48 in favor of David Ott for 53 days work at melting and refining etc. in the Mint from 1 November to 31 December inclusive. $133.33

Warrant No. 49 in favor of Thomas Bradley for pipes, scales, lamps, etc. for the use of the Mint to the 27th January last. $64.15

Warrant No. 50 in favor of William Ludlam Junior & Co., for bar Iron for the use of the Mint to the 9th instant. $27.80

February 21, 1795

Warrant No. 51 in favor of Albion Cox to pat laborers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 9th to the 14th instant inclusive. $29.76

Warrant No. 52 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay mechanics employed at the Mint from the 9th to the 14th instant inclusive.  $33.00

Warrant No. 53. in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed at the Mint from the 9th to the 14th instant inclusive.  $30.12

Mar. 25, 1795

On March 25, 1795, the Mint bought the fifth press from Samuel Howell, Jr. $ Co., for $134.07 including porterage.  Howell is known to have signed notes issued by the State of Pennsylvania in 1775.-Reference 4

Mar 31, 1795

Warrant in favor of John S. Gardner for 76 days engraving. $121.60

Warrant in favor of John Schreiner for 77 days work in the coining department.

Apr. 10. 1795

Warrant in favor of John Faipoux for cutting a screw for the Mint. $24.00

Apr. 22, 1795

Warrant in favor of Reynolds & Sharpless for cutting a screw for coining. $30.

Apr. 23, 1795

Warrant in favor of Talbot, Allum & Lee for 1076 lb. of copper for coining at 18 cents per lb.  $193.68

Jul 31, 1795

The first return of gold coinage, was on July 31, 1795, and consisted of 744 half eagles.-Reference 5

Sep 22, 1795

The first delivery of eagles was in September 22, same year(1795), and consisted of four hundred pieces. --Reference 5

September 30, 1795

Warrant in favor of Adam Eckfeldt, in full for 78 days work at $1.60 1/2, for forging and hardening dies, 14 lbs. , steel 20 bus. coals, etc.  $135.21

Warrant in favor of Joseph Way, in full as services and clerk of the Treasury of the Mint, from August 20th to this day $79.90

Warrant in favor of John S. Gardner, 78 days engraving at the Mint, ending today $174.72

Warrant in favor of John Schreiner, head pressman, 78 days  $125.19

Warrant in favor of John Cope , head adjuster, 78 days.  $125.19

Warrant in favor of Henry Wm. DeSaussure, salary, July 1st to date  $500.00

Warrant in favor of Estate of General Zane, 2 bars iron, sent by his son, weight 42 lbs. and carriage from Winchester, VA to Philadelphia.  $5.20

--Account of Warrants drawn by David Rittenhouse

October 10, 1795

Warrant in favor of Adam Eckfeldt, blacksmith work for force pump.  $21.50

--Account of Warrants drawn by Henry Wm. DeSaussure

Oct. 17, 1795

On October 17th Director DeSaussure estimated that American beer which had been substituted for ardent spirits, would cost $600.00 for the year 1796.  -Stewart, p.180

Oct. 19, 1795

Warrant in favor of Thomas Bingham, 96 letter punches $48.00

-Account of Warrants drawn by Henry Wm. DeSaussure

Oct. 23, 1795

Voigt to Treasurer

476 lbs. cents=approx. 19,800

(Receipt book shows these as part of 45,000 delivery on December 31, 1795)

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Warrant in favor of Martin Sumers, for one month as night watchman  $16.00

--Account of Warrants drawn by Henry Wm. DeSaussure

Oct. 28,1795

Warrant in favor of Adam Eckfeldt, 35 days for one hand in assisting at turning and forging, etc. at dies, at 10s. 6d. $49.00

--Account of Warrants drawn by Henry Wm. DeSaussure

Oct. 29, 1795

Warrant in favor of Joseph Hunnycomb, 8 cords of wood, wharfage, carting and sawing included.  $70.45

--Account of Warrants drawn by Elias Boudinot

Oct 31, 1795

Voigt to Way

604 11 5 cents = appox. 25,200

(Receipt book of  Treasurer shows these as part of December 31, 1795 delivery of 45,000)

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Warrant in favor fo Henry William DeSaussure, in full for his salary from the 1st to 28th, inclusive. $152.17

--Account of Warrants drawn by Elias Boudinot

Nov. 14, 1795

Warrant No. 46 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the coining business from the 2nd to the 7th instant inclusive.  $95.36

Nov. 21, 1795

Warrant No. 47 in favor of Albion Cox to pay labourers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 9th to the 14th instant inclusive.  $59.05

Warrant No. 48 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 9th to the 14th instant inclusive.  $85.56

Nov. 27, 1795

Warrant No. 49 in favor of Martin Summers for one months night watching at the Mint. $16.00

Warrant No. 50 in favor of Albion Cox in full of his account of wages due to laborers employed at the furnace of the Mint from the 16th to the 21st instant inclusive.  $54.00

Warrant No. 51 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 16th to the 21st instant inclusive.  $90.76

Dec. 1, 1795

A check through the Archives reveals no record of the disposition of these coins (1795 lettered edge cents) - apparently most of them were held in the Mint.  Elias Boudinot, then Director, had stopped their coinage on December 1, 1795 and in his annual report (issued Dec.3 ) he petitioned for a reduction of the weight of the cent to 168 grains.  It seems that copper coinage at the old weight involved a loss of about 22 percent because copper prices were so high that the cents were worth more as metal than as coins. It is therefore quite unlikely that many of them were released in December 1795.  Recoinage would have been feasible as soon as he requested reduction was authorized, since the Mint made its own planchet; and profitable, as every $10 in thick cents would yield $12.38 in thin ones.  Moreover, the melting would have affected most all of No. 76a, and this variety actually is very rare.  We may therefore assume that a large number, perhaps more than one third, of the thick 1795's never left the Mint and were in fact recoined after December 27, 795.

-Reference 4

Dec 1, 1795

Voigt to Way-25,600 half cents

37,000 cents

Dec 3, 1795

...report to the Secretary of the Treasury made by Director Boudinot, under date, December 3, 1795.  He says: "The sudden and unexpected death of assayer, Mr. Albion Cox, on Fryday (sic) last by and apoplectic fit, deprived the Mint of an intelligent officer, essentially necessary to the future progress in the coinage of the precious metals.  Until this officer is replaced the business at the Mint must be confirmed to striking cents only."

-Reference 5

Dec 5, 1795

Way to Voigt - 6476 lbs. in sheets and bottoms

Warrant No. 52 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the melting a refining business from the 23rd to the 28th November last inclusive. $74.79

Warrant No. 53 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the coining business from the 23rd to the 28th Nov. last inclusive.$94.76

Dec. 12, 1795

Joseph Rechardson, second assayer, was appointed December 12,1795.

-Reference 5

Dec. 12, 1795

Warrant No. 54 in favor of Henry Voight to pay labourers employed in the melting and refining business at the Mint from the 30th November to the 5th instant inclusive. $33.90

Warrant No. 55 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the coining business from 30th November to the 5th instant inclusive. $71.76

Warrant No. 56 in favor of H. Pepper in full of his account of Beer, to the 13th of November last. $36.00

Warrant No. 57 in favor of Joseph Pearson for 800 bushels charcoal, carting included. $132.00

Warrant No. 58 in favor of Peter Helm in full for lead, to the 28th November last. $7860

December 12, 1795

Warrant in favor of Joseph Anthony & Son, for copper and porterage $2020.75

-Stewart, p 181.

(The Account of Warrants drawn by Elias Boudinot shoes this as being paid on Dec. 19th)

December 18, 1795

Warrant in favor of George Halberstadt, in full for blacksmith work for the Refiners Department  $90.87

--Account of Warrants drawn by Elias Boudinot

Dec. 19, 1795

Warrant No. 60 in favor of Isaac and Moses Batram for three loads of Hay, half weighing included to 30th October. $85.96

Warrant No. 61 in favor of George Ludlum in full for fourteen pigs of lead and porterage.  $145.37

Warrant No. 62in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the melting and refining business from the 7th to the 12th instant inclusive.  $32.25

Warrant No. 63 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 7th to the 12th instant inclusive. $73.24

Warrant No. 64 in favor of George Halberstadt in full for a writing desk and three stools. $36.33

December 26, 1795

Warrant No. 65 in favor of Joseph Anthony & Son in full of their bill of copper and porterage of same. $2020.75

Warrant No. 66 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the melting and refining business from the 14th to the 19th instant inclusive. $32.35

Warrant No. 67 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay laborers employed in the coining business from the 14th to the 19th instant inclusive.  $73.04

Dec 31, 1795

Warrant in favor of William and Joseph Gray, in full for beer to 28th inst. $138.00

Warrant in favor of Adam Eckfeldt, in full for blacksmith work for the Refiners Department  $90.87

Warrant in favor of Adam Eckfeldt, for 78 days work at forging and turning dies, to this inst.  $124.80

Warrant in favor of John S. Gardner, for 78 days as assistant engraver $234.00

Warrant in favor of Elias Boudinot, salary from October 29th to December 31st, inclusive  $347.83

Warrant in favor of Administrator of Albion Cox, assayer, from Oct. 1 to Nov. 27th, inclusive  $236.41

Warrant in favor of Joseph Richardson, assayer from December 12 to December 31, inclusive. $81.52

--Stewart, p.181

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Warrant in favor of Michael Fox for his bill of Mahogany patterns  $5.46

--Account of Warrants drawn by Elias Boudinot

Dec 31, 1795

Warrant No. 68 in favor of Joseph Cruckshank in full of his bill for stationary to the 21st instant. $36.20

Warrant No. 69 in favor of Twamley and Shoemaker in full of their account of Ironmongery to the 11th instant. $129.96

Warrant No. 70 in favor of Caleb Emlem in full of his account of Planks and other timbers to the 30th of August. $43.34

Warrant No. 71 in favor of Amos Subers in full for 1080 Nos. of black lead pots. $30.00

Warrant No. 72 in favor of William and Joseph Gray in full of their account of Beer to the 28th instant.  $138.

Warrant No.73 in favor of Thomas Town in full for 86 days at different kinds of millwright work.  $154.80

Warrant No. 74 in favor of Adam Eckfeldt in full of his bill of Blacksmith work done for the coiner department. $177.72

Warrant No. 75 in favor of Adam Eckfeldt in full of his bill of Blacksmiths work for the refiners department. $90.87

Warrant No. 76 in favor of Martin Summers for night watching from the 22nd November to this day inclusive.  $20.64

Warrant  No. 77 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the melting and refining business from the 21st to the 26th instant inclusive. $31.50

Warrant No. 78 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the coining business from the 21st to the 26th instant inclusive. $60.30

Warrant No. 79 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers in the melting and refining business from the 28th to this instant inclusive  $18.

Warrant No. 80 in favor of Henry Voigt to pay labourers employed in the coining business from the 28th to this present inclusive $48.24

Warrant No. 81 in the favor of Nicholas Way for the salaries of the officers and clerks of the Mint for the quarter ending this day $2065.76

Warrant No. 83 in favor of Jonathon S. Gardner for 78 days work as assistant Engraver to this day.   $234.

Warrant No. 84 in favor of David Ott for 78 days melting and refining to this instant.  $299.91

Warrant No. 85 in favor of Jonathon Schreiner for 78 days work as chief Pressmen at the Mint to this instant $140.

Warrant No. 86 in favor of Isaac Hough for contingent expenses in the Assayers Department in the quarter ending this day $60.28

Warrant No. 87 in favor of Henry Voigt for contingent expenses in Coiners department in the quarter ending this day. $86.18

Warrant No. 88 in favor of Jonathon Cope for 78 days work as foreman to the adjusting room to this day $99.84

Warrant No. 89 in favor of Michael Fox in full of his bill for mahogany patterns, rounds, etc. to this instant.$5.46

Jan. 11, 1796

Voigt to Thomas - 60,000 cents

weight 1440 lbs. 15 oz.

Jan 19, 1796

Treasurer to Voigt - 38 sheets of copper

weight 1395 lbs.

Jan 19, 1796

Treasurer to Voigt 4-31